Topic 3e - The Vienna Convention and Montreal Protocol – an exemplar for international policy

The Vienna Convention for the Protection of the Ozone Layer is a Multilateral Environmental Agreement that was agreed upon at the Vienna Conference of 1985 and entered into force in 1988. It acts as a framework for the international efforts to protect the ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol lays out the legally binding reduction goals for the use of CFCs. It took place due to scientific research on the negative effect of CFCs on ozone in the 1970s and the discovery of the ozone hole in 1985.

The Montreal Protocol has been instrumental in phasing out the production and use of CFCs resulting in a slowed-down depletion of the ozone layer. Climate scientists studying three decades of ozone measurements from seven satellites see a positive trend in global recovery thanks to international efforts to curb ozone-depleting substances. It provides a stable framework that allows governments, industry, environmental groups and scientists and technical experts to work together to plan long-term research and innovation.

Featured Educators:

  • Prof. John Burrows

Don’t forget you can download the video, transcript and take any quizzes available with the links on the right.

Interactive Apps


Arctic ozone - 26 Feb 2018

False-color view of total ozone over the Arctic pole. The purple and blue colors are where there is the least ozone, and the yellows and reds are where there is more ozone. The data is from the Suomi NPP satellite.